A-F G-L K-Q
analysis: a type of writing that focuses on breaking down a text into its main ideas.
APA: American Psychological Association’s citation and format
style used primarily in sciences and social sciences.
audience: the readers for whom a writing project is
intended (See writing-to-communicate).
bibliography: a formal list of references cited in a
writing project (See works cited).
Chicago: a citation and format style sometimes used in
humanities and cultural studies.
citation: a reference made to an idea that is not
one's own in order to give credit to the original owner of the idea.
Specifically, citation styles like MLA, APA, and Chicago are used to make
citation format consistent (See APA, MLA, Chicago).
concept map: a diagram used to create and organize content
for a writing project at the prewriting stage.
content: the ideas, information and evidence written in a
drafting: writing multiple versions of a writing project in
order to revise content, organization, and style.
editing: suggests a quick look through what has already
been written and making minor changes and fixing typos.
ethos: writing/communicating that is modified by the
reader's perception of the writer's credibility. The writer/rhetor can
attempt to modify their ethos through stating their credibility on a subject
or by showing goodwill towards the audience and avoiding over-the-top
persuasive appeals. However, ethos is owned by the audience, not the writer/rhetor.
Statements regarding credibility and the reliability of the writer's/rhetor's
sources are part of ethos. Part of Aristotle's three modes for persuasion.
feedback: verbal or written comments intended to help a
writer improve and refine a writing project at the drafting stage.
flow: the result of using transitions between words,
phrases, sentences, and paragraphs in order to eliminate irregular
Formal Standard Grammar: grammar commonly used in school or
formal environments. SWE (Standard Written English) uses formal grammar as a
rule, with a few exceptions.
free writing: writing continuously, without stopping to
analyze or revise content, grammar, or spelling. This technique is used
primarily as a prewriting activity aimed toward warming up or seeking
possible topics for a writing project.
genre: a categorization of writing types determined by
hook: a technique used at the very beginning of an essay
that draws a reader's attention. Can be a vivid description, dialogue, a
non-rhetorical question, or an interesting fact.
inquiry-based responding: a method of offering writing
advice that concentrates on asking questions of the reader that prompts
additional thought from the writer.
journaling: a type of prewriting used to log thoughts
and/or information on a regular basis.
logos: the purpose for writing/communicating. Through
reasoned discourse, the writer/rhetor makes clear to the reader some idea or
thought that the writer/rhetor believes is important. Facts and logical
appeals are part of logos, as well as a writer's/rhetor's stated purpose for
writing. Part of Aristotle's three modes for persuasion.
MLA: the Modern Language Association’s citation and format
style used primarily in the humanities.
narrative: an essay that focuses on plot. Uses narrative
conventions to establish point of view, purpose, audience, and dialogue.
organization: the logical ordering of ideas, information
and evidence in a writing project.
pathos: writing/communicating to appeal to the audience.
Through emotional or imaginative appeals, the writer/rhetor makes clear to
the reader some idea or thought that the writer/rhetor believes is
important. Audience-based and emotional appeals are part of pathos. Part of
Aristotle's three modes for persuasion.
peer review: the evaluation of a writing project, during
the drafting stage, by members of the field for which the writing project is
written. In composition courses, peer review is conducted by class members
for one another.
plagiarism: the reference to or use of another's
ideas, thoughts, or words as one's own work (See citation).
prewriting: writing activities designed to help writers
identify the topic, purpose and audience of a writing project (See free-writing,
brainstorming, concept map).
product: the final draft of the writing process that is
deemed ready for publication.
purpose: the reason for which a body of writing is created
in relation to the audience’s reason for reading it.
quote: the explicit usage of a brief passage from a
source, cited and bound by quotation marks.
revision: revising is a “re-vision” of what has already
been written that ends in substantial changes to a draft.
adding: a type of revision. This traditional method of revision simply
requires additional details and ideas.
limiting: a type of revision. Limiting focuses on a small slice of what has
already been written in a draft in additional detail.
switching: a type of revision. Switching involves telling the same story or
reporting the same events as the previous draft, but doing so from a
transforming: a type of revision. The writer re-casts his or her draft into
a form or genre altogether different from what it has been.
rhetoric: the art of using language to communicate
effectively and persuasively.
rhetorical grammar: using grammatical devices to respond
effectively and persuasively to a writing/communication situation.
Standard Written English (SWE): the English of formal
writing environments, where audience may be very diverse. Conforms to a set
of invented rules to make language as generic as possible.
structure: the linear ordering of ideas in a way that is
easily comprehended by an audience.
style: the collection of choices made by a writer that
represents his/her view of communication and the world. Such choices
commonly relate to vocabulary usage, sentence structure, and tone among
other characteristics of how a writer addresses his/her audience.
summary: the representation of main points in a
larger work as is appropriate to the audience and purpose of one's writing.
synthesis: writing that is based in the discussion of two
or more sources.
thesis: a topic.
thesis statement: a concise statement of purpose and
topic that guides the reader through a body of writing.
topic: the content material upon which a writing project
transition: a word or phrase used to connect one idea
to another (See flow).
voice: the way one writes to confer a sense of personality
and/or persona. Writers develop different voices for different
audiences and purposes.
academic voice: a voice that adheres to Standard Written English and
conventions that are determined by the academic community for which a piece
of writing is developed.
authentic voice: the voice that you innately have as a speaker/ writer,
developed through years of practice in communicating in different forms
personal voice: an informal voice that is used in writing genres that are
written without an audience beyond the writer
public voice: a voice, informal or formal, that has a real or imagined
audience as its target.
works cited: the list of sources for MLA papers less than
ten pages in length.
works consulted: any sources used to understand or
brainstorm about a writing project but not directly cited within the final
product of a writing project.
writer’s anxiety/writer’s block: the apprehension related
to the writing process and/or product. While all writers have some level of
apprehension, anxiety can cause “blocks” in a writers progress toward a
product. Freewriting and other brainstorming activities are often used to
break through writer’s anxiety and writer’s block.
writing to communicate: writing crafted for the reader and
a distant audience that is based in critical thinking and formal language.
This writing has also been revised for clear, analytic thinking and to best
portray the writer's knowledge in the reader's system of thinking.
writing to learn: writing crafted for the writer and
trusted others that is based in discovery thinking and personal language.
Ms. Laura Padgett
Burton Center Director
Coordinator of Developmental Reading